Tuesday, October 28, 2014

I like my BLOG

This blog is really precious for me. Before I landed in Canada, I have never thought that I could study again; what's more, it is really beyond my imagination that I could study online. This is really a big challenge for me.

Working during the daytime, and finishing work till midnight has become my routine and it seems that I have been accustomed such arrangement.

You will never know your potential, unless you try it !!  --For myself.

My Third Journal

Thanks for my instructor's kindly encouragement, I can finish my three journals fluently. 

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies ---Course Journal Assignment 3

Nowadaysteachers are trying to find various methods to meet the different needs of students. With the development of modern technologies and the changing role of teachers, innovative approaches are researched and tested by many educators. “Flipping the classroom reverses a traditional model of in-class lecture followed by homework. The roles and responsibilities of instructor and student are proactive and often require a new or enhanced skill set.” Flipped classroom can encourage students to learn intuitively and therefore improve their score, according to the survey. Of course, there may be some disadvantages of flipped classroom, and I will discuss in the following part.

I learned this new term “Flipped Classroom” through PIDP course 3240 and 3250. I have been teaching as a teacher for many years, so I am quite familiar with the traditional classroom. However, I have never thought of such method before, and I felt amazed when I learned the process of Flipped Classroom the first time. After thinking it carefully and studying the situation of education in China, I find there are several reasons why it was impossible for me to apply such method to my class when I was in China. First, the number of students in my class in China is bigger than that of class in North America. Generally, I had 40-60 students in my class. Therefore, it was difficult to ensure that all of them can watch the videos and necessary materials before the class. Especially, some freshmen felt relaxed suddenly and lost motivation to study after attending the so-calles “the most fierce competition in the world”--- entrance examination in China. Second, my subject is English, which was a general subject for all the students in my university. To be frank, most Chinese students were not interested in English study and they were forced to study English by their parents for further jobs. Under such circumstance, it is impossible for them to learn before the class voluntarily. I have read many examples of Flipped Class, whose subjects are more specific, such as cooking, nursing, etc. If the students are interested in the subject they are studying, it is likely for them to do fully preparation before the class. Otherwise, teachers have to repeat those materials and they may have no time to do discussion or other activities. Third, some students cannot afford those computers necessary for the flipped class. I have to confess that some of students were from remote areas or poor countryside. Buying a laptop is not realistic, while school cannot provide enough media lab for them to use.

After reflecting all my experience in China and discussing in the forum, I have deep understanding of Flipped Classroom. There are several advantages of flipped class. First, students learn to how to manage their time and control themselves. Undoubtedly, students have to commit much more time to studying with Flipped Class. They must have the ability to control themselves and arrange their schedules logically. Besides, they can learn the teaching materials according to their own pace. Students can pause or repeat the lectures or videos anytime once they have some questions. Second, it is more efficient for both teachers and students. Because students have already learned those podcasts and lectures before the class, much time has been saved. Teachers and students can discuss the problems they encountered pertinently together. Therefore, the efficiency of class is greatly enhanced and the confusions of students can be solved promptly. Third, the interaction between students and teachers is increased. With the increasing interaction with teachers by those modern social media, such as blog, podcast, face book, etc, students may get feedback more quickly, which is consequently easy for both the parents and the students to realize their weaknesses and strengths. Of course, each coin has two sides. Also, the flipped classroom may face some challenges despite its advantages. First, not all the students have the necessary equipment (computer or digital devices) and computer technology for study at home. For those kids living in remote area, it is impossible for them to get access to those modern devices, and I wonder whether this kind of teaching approach will enlarge the gap between the students in developing country and in developed country. Second, teachers’ workload is increased greatly. Teachers have to spend much time compiling and editing videos, lectures, or podcasts. In addition, teacher has to do sufficient preparation for the possible problems students will propose during the class. Of course, the feedback will be offered on time. Third, students will have to spend too much time online to prepare their materials for the flipped classroom, which may have a negative effect on their eyesight or body. What’s more, the colorful content online may distract some students from learning materials. Therefore, it is hard to predict whether students can learn more than regular class if they cannot control themselves well.

After participating in discussion of the forum in PIDP 3250 course, I have a comparatively objective perspective on Flipped Classroom. In my future work, I’d like to use various methods for different kinds students. For those adult learners, I would fully use the approach of Flipped classroom, for most of them are self-directed learners who have clear goal and firm determination. In such circumstance, I believe that Flipped classroom can facilitate my teaching process. For those teenagers, I may partially use flipped class. Maybe I just ask them to see a part of video as a preview of class, and then discuss it in our class. Gradually, when those teenagers are accustomed to such approach and have showed great motivation in such teaching mode, it is time for me to apply Flipped classroom thoroughly. Anyway, Flipped Classroom is a trend in future education.

Michele Estes, Rich Ingram, Christie Liu  (July 29,2014)  A review of Flipped Classroom Research, Practice, and Technologies  Retrieved on Oct,6, 2014, from https://www.hetl.org/feature-articles/a-review-of-flipped-classroom-research-practice-and-technologies/
Chelsea Jenkins  (Aug 29,2012)   The adventages and disadvantages of the Flipped Classroom   Retrieved on Oct 6th, 2014, from http://info.lecturetools.com/blog/bid/59158/The-Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-the-Flipped-Classroom
Mike Acedo  (Nov.27,2013)   10 Pros and Cons of A Flipped Classroom     Retrieved on Oct 6th, 2014, from

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

How do we maintain a high level of motivation?

When we decide to do something, we have high motivation. Then, How to maintain a high level of motivation is a problem
I searched online and got some tips.

Squash negative thoughts and replace them with positive ones. This is one of the most important motivation skills, and it is important to practice it daily. It’s important to start monitoring your thoughts, and to recognize negative self-talk. Just spend a few days becoming aware of every negative thought. Then, after a few days, try squashing those negative thoughts like a bug, and then replacing them with a corresponding positive thought. Squash, “This is too hard!” and replace it with, “I can do this! If that wimp on TV can do it, so can I!” It sounds corny, but it works. Really.

Stay accountable. If you've committed yourself publicly, through an online forum (try wikiHow's Chat Forum!), on a blog, in email, or in person, stay accountable to that group of people. Commit to report back to them daily, or something like that, and stick to it! That accountability will help you to want to do well, because you don’t want to report that you’ve failed.
I like this one. I used to walk for an hour each day as a kind of exercise. Sometimes I do want to quit with different kind of excuses, such as weather, housework,etc.  After I downloaded a app, I have to share my record with my friends, and they also supervise me daily. This is really an effective way to keep doing something. We should make best use of social media nowadays.

Think about the benefits. Thinking about how hard something is is a big problem for most people. Waking early sounds so hard! Just thinking about it makes you tired. But instead of thinking about how hard something is, think about what you will get out of it. For example, instead of thinking about how hard it is to wake early, focus on how good you’ll feel when you’re done, and how your day will be so much better. The benefits of something will help energize you.
What do you think of this tip?When I keep on diet, I force myself to go shopping. When I see those beautiful clothes and amazing models, I know that I can get benefit from being thin.

Find like-minded friends. Staying motivated on your own is tough. But if you find someone with similar goals (running, dieting, finances, etc.), see if they’d like to partner with you. Or partner with your spouse, sibling or best friend on whatever goals they’re trying to achieve. You don’t have to be going after the same goals — as long as you are both pushing and encouraging each other to succeed. Other good options are groups in your area (be part of a running club, for example) or online forums where you can find people to talk to about your goals.

Read inspiring stories. Inspiration can come from others who have achieved what you want to achieve, or who are currently doing it. Read other blogs, books, magazines. Google your goal, and read success stories. You will soon grow to love reading success stories.
For me, I generally read some successful stories about new immigrants, which stimulate me to work harder and harder to realize my dream.

Get help. It’s hard to accomplish something alone. Whether it's quitting smoking, running a marathon or writing a thesis, it is important to find your support network, either in the real world or online, or both.
We all need friends, who can help us when we are in trouble or when we are depressed.

How to sustain motivation When you are struggling   retrieved from http://www.wikihow.com/Sustain-Motivation-when-You%27re-Struggling

Monday, October 20, 2014

Several causes For Bad Behavior

These two weeks, I am in charge of my thread titled as "class management".
From the posts, I have learned a lot. such as online class management, cellphone in class, skills in dealing with students answering questions, etc.

I like the following link, which introduce several causes for bad behaviors of children. We can find the right solution only when we find the just causes.

In my opinion, most of my students are spoiled in their family, and they have some bad habits that are difficult to correct in a couple of days, such as speak freely, laugh loudly, play smartphone, etc.
What's more, when they were in China, they have lots of assignments and the teachers were very strict, therefore, when they came to Canada, they felt free suddenly.

Here is the link: http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=2206534

Friday, October 17, 2014

Experiencing Teaching from Cindy

After reading Stephen Brookfield, I have a clear mind of the three stages of experiencing teaching--scanning, appraisal  and action.

I have been teaching ESL for more than 12 years. Because I am not majoring in education, so during the beginning years of teaching, I have to learn Educational Psychology, Educational Law,etc.
I used to teach both undergraduate students and graduate students, even some middle school students.

Looking back to those years, I have learned a lot. First, I think that scanning is important. "Scanning is the initial sweep or experiential trawl we undertake to diagnose the big picture". I do need to know what the students want, what the English level they are, or why they would like to study English,etc.

During the appraisal phase, I need to know their specific need. For example, some students are bad in grammar, others are not good at speaking, etc.
During the action phase, I have to choose the proper teaching materials for them. For teenagers, I will have to find some interesting stories, or articles with more pictures, or journals related with their daily life,etc.

During all these years teaching experience, I find I must choose the proper teaching material to the right student and apply different teaching style to students with various characters. When I taught those undergraduate students, I may explain the material in a detailed way and asked them to do some assignments; while I taught those graduate students, I may ask them to prepare the course in advance, and asked them to explain the key points to me instead. also, I asked them to write some journals and do some projects.

When I came to Canada I have to do these three phases again,because the requirements ,assessment and teaching materials are quite different with those of China. I have to study those carefully before I decide I choose which way and what materials to deliver.

I love teaching. Staying with students, I can find many fun , stay young and also learn from my students.

My journal for Instructional Strategy

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies ---Course Journal Assignment 1

Teaching in class is an art. Effective teaching and learning needs joint effort from both teachers and students. Recently, students’ engagement has been regarded as an indicator of successful classroom instruction. What is students’ engagement? According to the Wikipedia, student engagement occurs when “students make a psychology investment learning.” Then how to stimulate students to devote themselves to the class is a key problem worth studying. If teachers are good at applying those positive instructional strategies in class, the teaching process can be smoother and consequently the performance of students can be improved greatly. Based on the textbook, good strategy can promote students’ motivation and active learning, which are two key factors for students’ engagement. To enrich the class, teachers may use various approaches to make teaching interesting and meaningful.

After reading the first four chapters, I realized that there is much work to be done to improve my teaching. I have been teaching ESL for more than ten years. When I looked back to those years, I found that the most difficult part in my class is how to attract students’ attention to my class. Examining it closer, I think there are several factors for my problem. First, I haven’t changed much of my teaching style during the past few years. When I was in China, my main role in class is “Lecturer”, which means I just delivered the materials in front of the class and students were busy taking notes. Sometimes, the whole class was very quiet; while sometimes, the class was really noisy. One of the disadvantages of teaching in traditional way is that the teachers are really tired by teaching and lecturing continuously; meanwhile, the students feel so boring all the time that they are easily distracted or fall asleep. When I taught those undergraduates, the attendance rate was good; however, they couldn’t concentrate long enough for the whole class; When I taught graduates several years later, most students who attended to my class can focus their attention on my teaching; unfortunately, the attendance rate was not satisfactory. To be frank, I tried to change my way of teaching to some extent. One is to ask my students to explain the part of the textbook by themselves. I found when one of the students taught on the platform, his/her classmates may pay more attention to what he/she was talking about. Generally speaking, it was a good practice for both my students and me. The negative side is that it is a little time-consuming, because I have to highlight the key parts once more.

To be qualified instructors, we should try our best to strengthen students’ engagement by using various ways. First, create a positive environment—class community in class. Only when students feel emotionally safe can they actively take part in class activity. Good atmosphere and classroom community are good to maintain enthusiastic and productive students. Once the students have a sense of belonging, they would like to share, to assist, to discuss, even to debate with classmates freely, which could successfully attract students to their work. Second, set optimal level of challenge for students. Only when students feel intellectually safe can they learn willingly. Too difficult tasks can only frustrate them and those too easy one may make them bored. Therefore, the initial easy tasks can be followed by some tough ones. On one hand, students may feel fun by overcoming obstacles step by step; on the other hand, students may help each other in their own community. Third, timely assessment and feedback are necessary. Students need feedback from their teacher for further improvement. From my own experience, a student may study harder when he/she gets more attention from teachers. As a result, talking with students and giving some positive suggestions and feedback on study now and then may encourage them to focus on study more. Of course, there are many other helpful ways to stimulate students’ motivation and make learning less boring, which need teachers to practice and study further.
I have learned much more by reading the first four chapters. After reflecting, I will do more research on instructional strategies. First, I value the thought of creating classroom community. Apart from the academic teaching, I will devote myself to setting up a positive class atmosphere for students feeling safe. Once they feel comfortable and believe their teacher, I think that these students may invest more energy and attention into class. I can also establish class-community outside class by using modern technologies. I may use social media (such as blog, Facebook, twitter, wechat, etc) to let students share, discuss, and learn after class. Second, I may use multiple ways to deliver my teaching. For example, I may propose more open questions for students to do critical thinking instead of telling them the answer directly. In addition, “the memory parts” in text book impresses me a lot. I know I can help students enlarge the amount of vocabularies in my ESL class by using comparison and contrast. For example, I may ask my student to contrast the following words as “contract, contact compact, and connect”; or compare “ferry and fair”; “burrow and burro”, etc. Third, feedback and assessment are essential parts of teaching and learning. From the book, I learned various forms of assessment, such as summative, formative and educative assessment. I also realized how important the timely feedback is. Objective & efficient feedback can let student know how well they are doing and how they can do better. For example, if a student comes to class early, I can talk with him/her on class performance and the space for improvement.
In short, to be a qualified teacher and to make students focus on learning for a comparatively long time, I have to explore more colorful strategies constantly to meet the needs of students with different ages. 

TaylorL &Parsons, J.(2011) Improving Student Engagement Current Issues in Education, Volume 14, Number 1   Retrieved Sep 13th, from http://eddev.niagaracollege.ca/content/Portals/35/NiagaraCollege/pdf/teachinginternationalstudents/Improving%20Stuent%20Engagement.pdf
Elizabeth F.Barkely (2009) Student Engagement Techniques: A handbook for College Faculty
Adam Fletcher  Defining Student Engagement: A literature review  Retrieved Sep 13th ,from http://www.soundout.org/student-engagement-AF.pdf
Tristan de Frondeville (April, 13, 2014)  Ten steps to Better Student Engagement  Retrieved Sep 15th from: http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning-teaching-strategies

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Are there any questions?

This topic in PIDP forum 3250 impressed me most, apart from Power Teaching. 
Nearly all the teachers have said that in our class and almost all the students have heard this one. 

Asking a question is not a difficult one, but how to ask a question which can introduce more questions is a skill that teachers should learn. 

By reading this thread, I learned that the proper time for answering the question and some techniques for answering the questions. 

Only when can propose new questions can we tell them understand what we have taught clearly. Just saying " yes, I am clear" is not enough.
I think that both the students and the teachers should grasp the skill of asking questions.
For one thing, good questions from teacher can improve teaching. As a teacher, I tried to ask some open question instead of asking those questions with just "yes, or no". I need them to say more about the questions.

To be frank, I used to asked "are there any questions? are you clear? " Generally ,they say:"yes" . We do need them to push our student to explore further, and this is the responsibility of teachers.
For another thing, students should learn how to do critical thinking and how to ask effective questions to pursue their further study. Not only are answers  important to students but also questions are equally meaningful to students.

I gradually understand the difference between "any comments" and" are there any questions"? "any comment" can stimulate students to find more or ask more.
I may use "any comment" in my following class.

Here are some tips for asking question in class

I also like to quote some posts from my classmates Brenda, who offered some tips for asking questions.

I think that it would be a great idea to keep a list of essential questions (as discussed in the previous forum) that can be glanced at for guidance, especially for a newer instructor.  I think that I will write up 5-10 questions and then keep them with my lesson plan so that I have a cross reference to refer to when I get stuck. 
I know that there was  a list of EQs posted but I thought I'd write up a few that meet my needs...
Essential Question Suggestions
  1. Does anyone have any comments on what we have just been learning/discussing?                      
  2. What is the ‘muddiest point’ for you?
  3. Is there something that we have just covered that isn’t clear to you?
  4. Is there something that you would like more information or clarity on?
  5. If you were teaching this subject to someone else, what do you think would be the 1-3 most important points to emphasize?
  6. How do you think you can incorporate this information into your practice?
  7. What was the most practical piece of information you learned today & why?
  8. What was the least practical piece of information you learned today & why?    (From Brenda, PDIP3250 discussion forum)

ESL teaching materials

I have searched for ESL teaching materials and handouts constantly for the past years.
Recently, I have found some good links with many useful worksheets for my student to practice.




I keep it on my blog for record.

Monday, October 13, 2014

PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies ---Course Journal Assignment 2

Everyone has unique character. Some are introvert, while others are extrovert. Nowadays, we have an invisible bias against those introvert people who have few words, and have a preference for those easygoing ones to work with. In factno one is pure introvert or pure extrovert. According to the search, extrovert doesn’t equal to energetic and enthusiastic all the time and introvert doesn’t equal to shyness. Everyone may react differently on formal or casual occasion, showing our introversion or extroversion accordingly.
Therefore, it is wrong to arbitrarily judge one’s character. As a teacher, we should have clear mind on the advantages and the disadvantages of different characters, and them make good use of them to improve the performance of student.

After listening to the TED speech named The Power of Introverts, I contemplate my own and my experience at work. For one thing, looking back to those days when I was in China worked as a lecturer, I suddenly realized that I did pay more attention to those extrovert students. According to my experience, those extrovert students would like to sit in front of class, participating in class activities more. Besides, they were prone to share interesting, boringhappy or frustrating experience with me during the break. Consequently, I would like to talk more with those easygoing ones. In my opinion, I constantly believed that it is those extrovert students who helped me to set up positive atmosphere of class. Generally, those introvert students prefer to sit at the back of class, keeping silent all the time. For another thing, to be frank, I do regard myself as an extrovert and considerable person. I can easily find topics to communicate with strangers, and I try my best to avoid embarrassing others in any circumstances. I can adapt myself to the new environment quickly and to make new friends. However, occasionally I do prefer to be alone and stay in my bedroom, reading a fascinating novel, listening to classic music or just silently reading my own mind with the sound of rain outside in Vancouver. That feeling is really terrific and fabulous. I even doubt that I actually an introvert person in my inner heart.  

After reflecting all my experience and examining my own behavior both in public and at home, I find the TED speech is really reasonable. First of all, I try to find the differences between shyness and introversion —shyness has an element of apprehension, nervousness and anxiety, and while an introvert may also be shy, introversion itself is not shyness. Basically, an introvert is a person who is energized by being alone and whose energy is drained by being around other people.
Therefore, we can clearly understand that introvert person are not the shy one. They just prefer to be alone or they put all their energy into the activities they favor. That they are not talkative regularly does not mean lacking thought. Second, I have learned many advantages of introvert by searching online. Actually, they have rich and colorful inner world, and they try to choose their words carefully and accurately before expressing their attitudes or viewpoints. Meanwhile, they may spend much time thinking before acting, which is obviously a great advantage in working. Besides, we cannot deny that introvert people can observe an issue profoundly and differently, usually from other perspectives. Whats more, introvert people tend to become passionate experts in areas they favor. Generally speaking, extrovert people cannot concentrate for a long time; therefore they prefer to learn things extensively. On the contrary, introvert people can focus on the subject they are interested in for a comparative long time, so they are going to invest more emotional and mental energy into the fields they like. Third, it is not good to label anyone with extroversion or introversion. In other words, there is no pure introvert or pure extrovert exists. introvert and extrovert are just descriptive words for you to understand others or yourself, which may facilitate you to find friends with something in common. In my opinion, introvert and extrovert are changeable when he/she faces different circumstances and topics/fields.
After viewing this TED speech and searching online, I have deeper understanding of different characters. First, in my future job, I decide to pay more attention on those so-called introvert students. It is necessary for me to know that those who sit in the back of the classroom may be interested introverts and not unmotivated students. Various kinds of class activities may be designed to let introverts participate in, such as rotations. Small group discussion can be another good option for introvert students, who may feel comfortable and perform well. Besides, I may give them more time to think before answering my question. Once the introverts raise their hands to answer the questions, I do should listen to their answers-- which is quite important for encouraging them to participate in further activities. Additionally, constant praises are necessary for those introverts, who also need to be recognized. Second, I will no longer regard anyone as definite introvert or extrovert. No one is pure introvert or pure extrovert. Those extroverts need quiet space to think, to reflect, and even to recognize themselves, while introverts may warmly discuss the issues they are interested in. Both characters are good if we can coordinate them properly based on different situations.

Carol Bainbridge (May 29,2014)  Introvert    Retrieved Sep.25th, from http://giftedkids.about.com/od/glossary/g/introvert.htm
David Mein (March 22,2013)   There is no such a thing as an introvert  Retrieved Sep. 26th, from
Tami Isaacs  (July 27,2009) Introverted Students in the Classroom: How to Bring Out Their Best  Retrieved Sep.28th, from
Lisa Petrilli  (March 25, 2013)  Ten things Educators Should Know About Introverted Students  Retrieved Sep. 28th, from  http://www.lisapetrilli.com/2013/03/25/ten-things-educators-should-know-about-introverted-students/

Thanksgiving Day is a Day to give thanks!

Thanksgiving Day in Canada is coming. I like to express my deeply thanks for all the people I met in Canada in the past year.

Because of your kindly help, I can overcome so many difficulties and finally settled down in Vancouver. I have much confusion and worries when I first landed in Vancouver. I wondered whether I have made a good decision for my own and my whole family.

Because of your encourage and kind word, I felt warm in my heart and believe that Canada is the right place that I want to thrive.

Thanks again from my heart !

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Other links for Asking Question effectively and creatively in Class

 Other links for Asking Question effectively and creatively in Class





For myself to record~~~

Do I really know How to ask Questions in Class?

After discussion in PIDP 3250 forum, I think that I should reflect my performance in class. I should ask myself some questions on teaching.

Do I really know how to ask questions in class?
Do I really prepare all my questions well?
Do I really pay much attention on the questions my students ask?

I think that both the students and the teachers should grasp the skill of asking questions.
For one thing, good questions from teacher can improve teaching. As a teacher, I tried to ask some open question instead of asking those questions with just "yes, or no". I need them to say more about the questions.

To be frank, I used to asked "are there any questions? are you clear? " Generally ,they say:"yes" . We do need them to push our student to explore further, and this is the responsibility of teachers.
For another thing, students should learn how to do critical thinking and how to ask effective questions to pursue their further study. Not only are answers  important to students but also questions are equally meaningful to students.

I gradually understand the difference between "any comments" and" are there any questions"? "any comment" can stimulate students to find more or ask more.
I may use "any comment" in my following class.

Here are some tips for asking questions in Class from 

General Strategies for Asking Questions

  • When planning questions, keep in mind your course goals. For example, do you want students to master core concepts? To develop their critical thinking skills? The questions you ask should help them practice these skills, as well as communicate to them the facts, ideas, and ways of thinking that are important to their learning in your course. (For more information about course goals, see Planning a Course).
  • Avoid asking “leading questions.” A leading question is phrased in such a way that it suggests its own answer and therefore discourages students from thinking on their own.
  • Follow a “yes-or- no” question with an additional question. For example, follow up by asking students to explain why they answered the way they did, to provide evidence or an example, or to respond to a yes-or-no answer given by another student.
  • Aim for direct, clear, specific questions. During class discussions, rather than beginning with a single question that is multilayered and complex, use a sequence of questions to build depth and complexity. Essay questions on exams or paper assignments, on other hand, often provide an appropriate opportunity to ask multi-layered questions. If your exam will include multi-layered questions, use questions during class time to walk students through the process of answering multi-layered questions.

  • In class discussions, do not ask more than one question at once. When you ask more than one question, students often do not respond because they are unsure which question you want them to answer.
  • When you plan each class session, include notes of when you will pause to ask and answer questions. Asking questions throughout the class will not only make the class more interactive, but also help you measure and improve student learning. Do not save the last two minutes of class for questions. Students are unlikely to ask questions when they know that only a few minutes remain. (See Increasing Student Participation and Teaching with Lectures.)